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Cloud Application Security in C# for Azure (CASEC-CAZ)

Detailed Course Outline

DAY 1

Cyber security basics

  • What is security?
  • Threat and risk
  • Cyber security threat types
  • Consequences of insecure software
    • Constraints and the market
    • The dark side
  • Cloud security basics
    • Cloud infrastructure basics
    • Cloud architectures and security
    • The Cloud Cube Model
    • Attack surface in the cloud
  • Cloud data security
    • Data confidentiality and integrity in the cloud
    • Data privacy in the cloud
    • Compliance considerations
  • Cloud deployment security
    • Hardening cloud deployments
    • Security of jump boxes
    • Serverless computing and security
  • Cloud security standards and best practices
    • SOC compliance
    • CSA controls
    • Other standards

The OWASP Top Ten

  • OWASP Top 10 – 2017
  • A1 - Injection
    • Injection principles
    • Injection attacks
    • SQL injection
      • SQL injection basics
      • Lab – SQL injection
      • Attack techniques
      • Content-based blind SQL injection
      • Time-based blind SQL injection
    • NoSQL injection
      • NoSQL injection specialties
      • NoSQL injection in MongoDB
      • NoSQL injection in CosmosDB
    • SQL injection best practices
      • Input validation
      • Parameterized queries
      • Lab – Using prepared statements
      • Additional considerations
      • Case study – Hacking Fortnite accounts
      • SQL injection protection and ORM
    • Parameter manipulation
      • CRLF injection
        • Log forging
        • Log forging – best practices
        • HTTP response splitting
        • Header checking in ASP.NET
      • HTTP parameter manipulation
        • HTTP parameter pollution
        • Variable shadowing
        • Value shadowing
    • Code injection
      • OS command injection
        • Lab – Command injection
        • OS command injection best practices
        • Avoiding command injection with the right APIs
        • Lab – Command injection best practices
        • Case study – Command injection via ping
    • Script injection
    • Dangerous file inclusion

DAY 2

The OWASP Top Ten

  • A2 - Broken Authentication
    • Authentication
      • Authentication basics
      • Multi-factor authentication
      • Multi-factor authentication best practices
      • Authentication weaknesses - spoofing
      • Spoofing on the Web
      • Case study – PayPal 2FA bypass
      • User interface best practices
  • Single sign-on (SSO)
    • Single sign-on concept
    • OAuth2
      • OAuth2 basics
      • OAuth2 in practice
      • Best practices
      • Configuration best practices
      • Case study – Stealing SSO tokens from Epic Games accounts
    • SAML
      • SAML basics
      • SAML profiles
      • SAML security
  • Password management
    • Inbound password management
      • Storing account passwords
      • Password in transit
      • Lab – Is just hashing passwords enough?
      • Dictionary attacks and brute forcing
      • Salting
      • Adaptive hash functions for password storage
      • Lab – Using adaptive hash functions in C#
      • Password policy
      • NIST authenticator requirements for memorized secrets
      • Password hardening
      • Using passphrases
      • Password change
      • Password recovery issues
      • Password recovery best practices
      • Lab – Password reset weakness
      • Case study – The Ashley Madison data breach
      • The dictionary attack
      • The ultimate crack
      • Exploitation and the lessons learned
      • Password database migration
      • (Mis)handling null passwords
    • Outbound password management
      • Hard coded passwords
      • Best practices
      • Lab – Hardcoded password
      • Protecting sensitive information in memory
      • Challenges in protecting memory
      • Storing sensitive data in memory
      • Lab – Using secret-handling classes in C#
  • Session management
    • Session management essentials
    • Why do we protect session IDs – Session hijacking
    • Session fixation
    • Session invalidation
    • Session ID best practices
    • Cross-site Request Forgery (CSRF)
      • Lab – Cross-site Request Forgery
      • CSRF best practices
      • CSRF defense in depth
      • Lab – CSRF protection with tokens
    • Cookie security
      • Cookie security best practices
      • Cookie attributes
  • A3 - Sensitive Data Exposure
    • Information exposure
    • Exposure through extracted data and aggregation
    • Case study – Strava data exposure
    • System information leakage
      • Leaking system information
    • Information exposure best practices
  • A4 - XML External Entities (XXE)
    • DTD and the entities
    • Entity expansion
    • External Entity Attack (XXE)
      • File inclusion with external entities
      • Server-Side Request Forgery with external entities
      • Lab – External entity attack
      • Case study – XXE vulnerability in SAP Store
      • Preventing XXE
      • Lab – Prohibiting DTD

DAY 3

The OWASP Top Ten

  • A5 - Broken Access Control
    • Access control basics
    • Failure to restrict URL access
    • Confused deputy
      • Insecure direct object reference (IDOR)
      • Lab – Insecure Direct Object Reference
      • Case study – Authorization bypass on Facebook
      • Authorization bypass through user-controlled keys
      • Lab – Horizontal authorization
    • File upload
      • Unrestricted file upload
      • Good practices
      • Lab – Unrestricted file upload
  • A7 - Cross-site Scripting (XSS)
    • Cross-site scripting basics
    • Cross-site scripting types
      • Persistent cross-site scripting
      • Reflected cross-site scripting
      • Client-side (DOM-based) cross-site scripting
      • Lab – Stored XSS
      • Lab – Reflected XSS
      • Case study – XSS in Fortnite accounts
    • XSS protection best practices
      • Protection principles - escaping
      • XSS protection APIs
      • Request validation in ASP.NET
      • Further XSS protection techniques
      • Lab – XSS fix / stored
      • Lab – XSS fix / reflected
      • Additional protection layers
      • Client-side protection principles
  • A8 - Insecure Deserialization
    • Serialization and deserialization challenges
    • Integrity – deserializing untrusted streams
    • Integrity – deserialization best practices
    • Property Oriented Programming (POP)
      • Creating payload
      • Summary – POP best practices
      • Lab – Creating a POP payload
      • Lab – Using the POP payload
  • A9 - Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities
    • Using vulnerable components
    • Assessing the environment
    • Hardening
    • Untrusted functionality import
    • Importing JavaScript
    • Lab – Importing JavaScript
    • Case study – The British Airways data breach
    • Vulnerability management
      • Patch management
      • Vulnerability management
      • Bug bounty programs
      • Vulnerability databases
      • Vulnerability rating – CVSS
      • Lab – Finding vulnerabilities in third-party components
      • DevOps, the build process and CI / CD
      • Dependency checking in C#
      • Lab – Detecting vulnerable components
  • A10 - Insufficient Logging & Monitoring
    • Logging and monitoring principles
    • Insufficient logging
    • Case study – Plaintext passwords at Facebook
    • Logging best practices
    • Monitoring best practices

Web application security beyond the Top Ten

  • Client-side security
  • Same Origin Policy
  • Tabnabbing
  • Lab – Reverse tabnabbing
  • Frame sandboxing
    • Cross-Frame Scripting (XFS) attack
    • Lab - Clickjacking
    • Clickjacking beyond hijacking a click
    • Clickjacking protection best practices
    • Lab – Using CSP to prevent clickjacking

DAY 4

Cloud infrastructure security

  • Container security
    • Container security concerns
    • Containerization, virtualization, and security
    • Attack surface of container technologies
    • Container security tools
    • Docker security
      • Docker and security
      • Docker security features
      • Common Docker security mistakes
      • Docker security best practices
      • Hardening Docker
      • Lab – Static analysis of Docker image
    • Kubernetes security
      • The Kubernetes architecture and security
      • Common Kubernetes security mistakes
      • Securing Kubernetes hosts
      • Best practices for Kubernetes access control
      • Building secure Kubernetes images
      • Secure deployment of Kubernetes containers
      • Protecting Kubernetes deployments at runtime
      • Lab – Scanning a Kubernetes image for vulnerabilities
  • Azure security
    • Security considerations for Azure
      • Azure and security
      • Azure security features
      • The Azure shared responsibility model
      • Azure cloud compliance
      • Azure hardening
      • Security tools for Azure
    • Identity and access management (IAM)
      • Identity and access management in Azure
      • Azure Active Directory
      • Multi-factor authentication with Azure
      • Azure RBAC
      • Azure Active Directory Federation Services
      • Azure Shared Access Signatures (SAS)
    • Data security
      • Data security in Azure
      • Storing cryptographic keys in Azure
      • Protecting data in transit
      • Protecting data at rest
    • Detection and monitoring
      • Utilizing Azure monitoring for security
      • The Azure Application Gateway WAF
      • The Azure Security Center

API security

  • Input validation
    • Input validation principles
    • Blacklists and whitelists
    • Data validation techniques
    • Lab – Input validation
    • What to validate – the attack surface
    • Where to validate – defense in depth
    • When to validate – validation vs transformations
    • Output sanitization
    • Encoding challenges
    • Unicode challenges
    • Lab – Encoding challenges
    • Validation with regex
  • Integer handling problems
    • Representing signed numbers
    • Integer visualization
    • Integer overflow
    • Lab – Integer overflow
    • Signed / unsigned confusion
    • Case study – The Stockholm Stock Exchange
    • Lab – Signed / unsigned confusion
    • Integer truncation
    • Best practices
      • Upcasting
      • Precondition testing
      • Postcondition testing
      • Using big integer libraries
      • Integer handling in C#
      • Lab – Checked arithmetics

JSON security

  • JSON validation
  • JSON injection
  • Dangers of JSONP
  • JSON/JavaScript hijacking
  • Best practices
  • Case study – ReactJS vulnerability in HackerOne

DAY 5

API security

  • Input validation
    • Files and streams
      • Path traversal
      • Lab – Path traversal
      • Path traversal-related examples
      • Additional challenges in Windows
      • Virtual resources
      • Path traversal best practices
      • Lab – Path canonicalization
    • Unsafe reflection
      • Reflection without validation
      • Lab – Unsafe reflection

XML security

  • XML validation
  • XML injection
    • XPath injection
    • Blind XPath injection

Denial of service

  • Denial of Service
  • Flooding
  • Resource exhaustion
  • Sustained client engagement
  • Denial of service problems in C#
  • Infinite loop
  • Economic Denial of Sustainability (EDoS)
  • Algorithm complexity issues
    • Regular expression denial of service (ReDoS)
      • Lab – ReDoS in C#
      • Dealing with ReDoS
      • Hash table collision
        • How do hash tables work?
        • Hash collision in case of hash tables

Cryptography for developers

  • Cryptography basics
  • Crypto APIs in C#
  • Elementary algorithms
    • Hashing
      • Hashing basics
      • Hashing in C#
      • Lab – Hashing in C#
  • Confidentiality protection
    • Symmetric encryption
      • Block ciphers
      • Modes of operation
      • Modes of operation and IV – best practices
      • Symmetric encryption in C#
      • Symmetric encryption in C# with streams
      • ProtectedData and ProtectedMemory
      • Lab – Symmetric encryption in in C#
    • Asymmetric encryption
    • Combining symmetric and asymmetric algorithms
  • Integrity protection
    • Message Authentication Code (MAC)
      • Calculating HMAC in C#
      • Lab – Calculating MAC in C#
    • Digital signature
      • Lab – Digital signature with ECDSA in C#
  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
    • Some further key management challenges
    • Certificates
      • Certificate management – best practices
  • Transport security
    • Transport security weaknesses
    • The TLS protocol
      • TLS basics
      • TLS features (changes in v1.3)
      • The handshake in a nutshell (v1.3)
      • TLS best practices
      • TLS authentication best practices
      • HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS)
      • Lab – Setting HSTS in C#

Wrap up

  • Secure coding principles
    • Principles of robust programming by Matt Bishop
    • Secure design principles of Saltzer and Schröder
  • And now what?
    • Software security sources and further reading
    • .NET and C# resources